Interview: Pete Brook – Author, Blogger. Part Two

‘Dominoes, Death Row, Texas’ 1979 – Bruce Jackson

My interview with Pete Brook continues, focusing on the obstacles that reform in America faces, and the outcomes without it….

Is the public attitude able to change towards the way we use prisons and who we imprison? 

PB: What’s happened over the last 40 years is the biggest experiment in human incarceration in the history of humanity. So you’re asking me there if the biggest experiment in decarceration in human history might happen. I hope so. There’s so many things that plug into it.

To have less prisons you need to have different sentencing guidelines. I spoke to Brian Stephenson, who is the founder and director of the Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery, Alabama, and he was the first guy I have ever spoken to who put a figure on it. He said, if there was the political will, you could reduce the American prison population by 50%. That would be over 1.1 million people, and he’s saying you could do that in the next six or seven years, if all your ducks were lined up, and he said you could do it without affecting public safety and it would be to release or not punish with custodial sentences people who were drug addicts or people who had been sentenced for property crimes or people who….all people had never committed a violent crime, you know.

But, to get there you’re asking for a fundamental change in people’s attitudes. The prison system is supported by an American culture because it backs up, and actually, it fulfils the attitudes of the people.

‘Girl With Doll’ Remann Hall, Washington State, 2002. By Steve Davis

So as long as we’re puritan about drug use, and as long as drug use is criminalised and not treated as a public health issue then it will be difficult to change the system. Before people are willing to accept that the criminal justice system and policing generally impacts lower economic groups who tend to be minorities, then we’re not going to see a change, and I dare say that there are a lot of people in America that think that police interact with minorities only because minorities deserve it because that’s the way they behave. Those are racist attitudes. But they persist.

So I don’t think it’s going to be easy. I don’t even think it’s going to happen. Maybe as generations pass. I don’t think that’s as nearly an adequate answer as you would like.

People have to care about each other. It’s just really bizarre in a country that has professed Christian ideals that when it comes to the prison system people don’t seem to love their neighbour, they seem to hate their neighbour. They seem to have an incredible amount of indifference towards the fortune of their neighbour. I mean I’m not a religious person I’m not saying that you should let these people out because of Christian ideals. It makes it easy when I’m chatting to my parents because they’re catholic and I’m like Jesus is all about visiting people in prison and stuff. But it’s a very easy line of argument to use when you’re dealing with conservatives. You should care because that’s what you talk about elsewhere.

By Sye Williams

What are the consequences if there is no change or reform? 

PB: I really don’t actually want to think about that because I might end up saying something quite extreme and I tend not to like hyperbole from others.

There’s no choice. The American public don’t have a choice. The American public have to at some point stop making prisons. Now, that might happen because they and their politicians decide to do so and have a go at implementing different types of solutions. But what also might happen is that the divisions will grow deeper and deeper.

In the past, there have been famous prison riots. I don’t think prison riots are going to happen. I think if there’s a rebellion it might happen on the outside. I don’t want this to happen, but if you push people harder and harder and keep them down and what I’m talking about here is essentially the wealth gap in America, access to reliable services.

If you talk about the American Dream, but in reality it doesn’t exist, because poor people stay poor and rich people get richer and there’s never been larger gaps between the rich and poor, eventually what it is that supports those systems will have to collapse. And, if you keep incarcerating people and destroying communities then I think those communities are going to get really annoyed and if they’re not represented by any politicians then I don’t know ….what becomes their options?

Maybe I’m just thinking about civil disobedience and rebellion because we’ve had a glimpse of it through Occupy.

I don’t know what the answer is. But either the American public takes responsibility for the broken system itself and deals with it with an informed and purposeful way, or they just ignore and it all collapses and everybody loses out.

You know what would be the best thing for prison reform? It’d be Justin Bieber. You know, I’m not precious about it. Any way you can get hard shocking facts into people’s heads is great. But so far, I think I’ve changed some minds. That’s good enough for me.

Follow Pete’s work at http://prisonphotography.wordpress.com/

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Interview: Pete Brook – Author, Blogger. Part One

Pete Brook is the author of prisonphotography.wordpress.com. He has spent the best part of the last ten years focusing on the problems of mass incarceration in the US. His project, focusing on photography of prisons (though not a photographer himself), aims to bring to light issues of social justice, ethics and also question how we view the prison system through media and politics.

The prison population has quadrupled in America since 1980, and the States have the highest proportion of prison inmates to population in the world. I caught up with Pete a little while ago to talk about the prison system. In this first part of the interview, we discuss the American system, Pete’s work, and also, why the problem has ignored up until now.

When did you first get into your work on Prison Reform? 

PB: Being an activist in Prison Reform doesn’t pay the bills really so my first few years in America was working as a photo researcher to pay the bills. So I didn’t start writing about prisons until 2008. But the issue first came on my radar in 2004 when I was writing my dissertation at the University Of Manchester.

I always say if I was an American kid myself I would be as interested in the issues of prison reform, because it’s common sense that you would care about something that’s so agrieviously wrong, broken and ignored.

I was at a conference recently and everyone was saying they were inspired and surprised really, by the passion and the clarity that myself and other panellists have towards their work with in prisons and prison communities. But to me it’s far simpler than any other type of work. When the problem is so obvious, it’s quite easy to remain convinced about it, engaged with it and explore it time and time again.

Why is the problem ignored so much if it is so obvious? Why aren’t more people concerned, or been concerned in the stages up until now? 

PB: There is no incentive really for any group to push prison reform discourse. If the people really cared about it then politicians would chase those votes. But people don’t care about it partly because you know, frankly it’s one of many issues. People are gonna care about education and healthcare before they’re gonna care systems that affect people outside of their families. So you know, I don’t expect that everyone would care about prisons or be advocates for reform. But in a lot of cases, people either don’t know a lot or are misinformed about prisons. So that goes in my mind, back to the media. I don’t think the correct type of images or discussions are being had. And I don’t think people understand what prisons are like.

It just takes quite large leaps of imagination for people to put aside strong emotional responses…understandable…understandable emotional responses to crime and violence and fear. So those are quite large hurdles. People don’t need to….if they don’t think that  the prison system affects them and they’ve decided they don’t really have anything to do with those that the prison system does affect, then they’ve got no incentive really to look at what’s going on.

So it’s not that people are bad. It’s that there’s this perfect storm of bad media, bad politics, bad information to a degree, in some states, money and lobbying activity, that’s a corrupting force that’s coming from labour union unfortunately. I think labour unions are great, except when they get involved in making or pushing bad legislation which has happened.

But I am hopeful. I do think that’s changing. For whatever reasons, well, for economical, both Republicans and Democrats have started to question whether prisons make economic sense. The answer is obviously no. Because they don’t work and they’re expensive. And there’s been more discussion in national and international platforms.

I think it’s becoming more of a debate in the public sphere and I think that’s a good thing.

Photo by Steve Davis

How do Prisons differ across America? [Pete visited some prisons as part of the book he is writing on Prison Photography]

PB: I actually didn’t got to as many prisons as I had hoped because they’re quite difficult to get into I found.

I can certainly talk to you about different systems. Within a given state there’s County Jails as well, so if you’re sentenced to two years or less, generally, you’ll go to a County Jail. More than that and you can go to a State Prison. There’s differences between states but generally that’s how it breaks down.

Jails, because the populations are more transitory, they tend to be a bit more hectic, noisy, filthy. But that said, if you can improve the conditions, jails are better places for people to serve time if they have to serve time, because they are close to their community. When you put someone in a State Prison you can put them in a facility ten-twelve hours away. It’s very beneficial for families if they can maintain a relationship as well.

On the coasts and in the North prisons tends to be…there’s a lot of old prisons which are shitholes. Big drafted Victorian stone buildings and they’re slowly being replaced but not necessarily with anything better sometimes with something that is so punitive and brutal and stark. I don’t know what’s best for the inmates. I think architectures only one of the conditions.

Anyway what you will put in your piece is that when you go down to the South, prisons are totally different. I visited Angola. That place is operated like a thief-dom. The warden there has total autonomy. He’s gone on the record trying to bribe journalists in the past and he’s still in a job. Basically anything he wants to get done, he’ll just do it. He started the prison rodeo, and the crafts fair and the programs.  Prisons there are very busy but it stands to reason that you would keep people busy. You don’t have to be a man of God, which this warden is, to know that it’s good to keep people busy. With food and rodeo he can generate his own income and then he can put in for programmes I would say are beneficial, but all this very like loose autonomous administration in prisons you wouldn’t be able to do in the Northern states. People are divided. You know, at least the guy’s accountable. Or seemingly accountable. He only shows you bits of the prison he’s happy to show you though. He’s very media savvy also.

Then just to talk briefly about another, not a warden in this case, but a Sheriff. Sheriff Jo Arpaio in Phoenix, Arizona. He is fantastic at using visual clichés to dictate narrative. Arizona now has become a centre for immigration issues, criminal justice and Sheriff Joe Arpaio who calls himself the toughest sheriff in America has managed to use his jail system to conflate all of these things and to excise the right and dismay the left. It’s really divisive politics that’s going on. That’s a jail system operated for as alike a warning to the public at large. It operates like a circus and it’s meant to scare and perversely entertain people. And that sort of behaviour also you wouldn’t find in other parts of America.

Photo by Jenn Ackermann
A Corrections Officer comforts an inmate during a psychotic episode. 2008.

Your work must involve you quite deeply on a personal level. Where does this leave you? Is this your issue now? Is there an end-point?

PB: My activities are always changing a little bit. But I think people gravitate others if they have a passion. So there’s gonna be a lot of people who don’t wanna hear me yap on about prison reform but they’ve already made their minds up. I think there will be a lot of people who are just curious because I’m just talking about stuff that doesn’t always get talked about. I’ve been told that I can talk about these really dark and depressing issues with humour which I think may be a talent.

But yeah it has become my issue, especially talking about it through looking at people’s photography. I’m asking questions about society about a capitalist society reward of selfish behaviour, I’m talking about politics, I’m talking about media, I’m talking about our responsibility as public and consumers and those topics are inexhaustible really. So I don’t foresee an end point, yet.

But as I say I’ve diversified since the road trip. I did newspapers, I’m doing a book at the moment. I’m going to be applying for some large grants to write and there’s the photography show which is going to New York next month. I’m always doing college lectures. So it’s just a case of always trying to keep myself honest and engaged and also trying to be imaginiative about different ways I can engage the public.

Like this conference I went to at the weekend which was full of MFA Art students and art faculty and hairy liberals, but they still had quite a limited knowledge of the prison system. I’m always amazed by how shocked people are when I present stuff that I don’t suppose is novel to anyone but it obviously still is.

Follow Pete’s blog at: http://prisonphotography.wordpress.com/

The 2011 Riots – Part Two

Who Was Involved?

From Infed.org – Mark K. Smith’s analysis of the riots in Young People and The 2011 ‘Riots’ in England – Experiences, Explanations and Implications for Youth Work:

  • In an initial analysis of those who came to court in the first week, Alex Singleton (2011) found that 41% of suspects living in one of the top 10% of most deprived places in the country. The data also shows that 66% of neighbourhoods where the accused live got poorer between 2007 and 2010. Very few of those appearing in court had jobs or were students (around 9% in total of the first 1000 cases). The Institute of Public Policy Research (2011) found that in an overwhelming majority of the worst-affected areas, youth unemployment and child poverty were significantly higher than the national average while education attainment was significantly lower.


  • When the first thousand cases are examined we find 66% of those who have appeared in court are aged under 25. 17% aged between 11 and 17. A very small number were aged over 30. More than 90% are male.


  • Ethnicity and ‘race’ form a further feature that must be addressed. Unlike some of the disturbances in the early 1980s the August events did not, on the whole, pit one ethnic community against another, although there were some exceptions, for example in some aspects of events in Birmingham and Ealing, and implicitly, Eltham. However, many of the poorer neighbourhoods affected have large ‘black’ populations. Ministry of Justice and Home Office analysis showed that 46% of defendants were ‘black’, 42% ‘white’ and 7% ‘Asian’. At one level this could be expected given the nature of the initial incident and protest – and the extent to which ‘stop and search’ has been directed against ‘black’ young people.

This particular report by Smith is very revealing, and perhaps, through the benefit of hindsight, has more insight into the reasons and tensions surrounding the riots.

The report highlights several issues that have created tension, particularly over the last few months and years. They are:

– A large amount of those involved in the riots cam from the most deprived areas of the country. Many others were from areas and families that had slipped underneath the poverty line in the last couple of years, due to recession and cut-backs.

– The closure of youth clubs, particularly in deprived areas.

– Tensions between ethnic, mainly black, communities and the police – the commencement of the ‘Stop and Search’ law and the ‘extent to which this has been directed towards ‘black’ young people’. A report by the Equality and Human Rights Commission called ‘Stop and Think – A Critical review of the use of Stop and Search powers in England and Wales’ (2010) revealed:

The figures are stark: if you are black, you are at least six times as likely to be stopped and searched by the police in England and Wales as a white person. If you are Asian, you are around twice as likely to be stopped and searched as a white person.

– Gang Culture – particularly in London. Smith highlights a balance that needs to be struck in the involvement of ‘gangs’, explaining that while some members and groups were involved, to understand the riots as a whole, we also need to look past this. Most forces reported that gangs did not play a ‘pivotal role’ in the riots. Local evidence shows that in some cases gangs did orchestrate burglary at larger stores through creating distractions. London police believe there to be just under 200 gangs with between 20-30 members in London – who account for a fifth of all youth crime. During the riots, it seemed that some gangs who were initially and commonly ‘rivals’ in ‘postcode wars’ etc joined against the common foe – the police.

– Inequality and Materialism – The UK is only second to the US for having the largest gap between the rich and the poor, which common research has revealed is one of the factors in well-being i.e. in countries where this gap is bigger, more of the populations tends to be unhappy. The banking crisis of 2008 and its effects have largely preyed on children, forcing families into poverty, and struggles with finance. Add to this the pressures of consuming, and ‘technology status’ with phones and other gadgets, branded clothing distinguishing the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. Parents can feel immense pressure to give their children such items even if they are outside their financial possibilities. These sorts of pressures are highly felt in low income families, and according to research the purchase of these items by these families in the UK, are an attempt ‘to compensate for relationship problems or social insecurity’.

– Moral Collapse – this is a point that refers to the inability to tell right from wrong. The presence of so many stories of illegality in ‘high places’ have also been relevant. The abuse of expenses by MP’s, the collapse of the banks through inability to control finance appropriately – leading to the recession and its effects and also the invasion of privacy by companies such as the News of The World and its phone hacking scandals – leading to a lack of trust in these companies and their failure to act for the good of society.

Smith explains that the riots happened at a time when several elements were playing a part and there is not one single and simple cause.

Tensions in the neighbourhoods of the ‘rioters’ reveal tensions between the police and the people, who are often at the same time suffering from socio-econmical problems.

Some may have seen the riots as ‘payback’, some may have seen them as ‘fun’, some may have seen them as ‘an opportunity’ whether to steal high priced electronic goods or to steal food. However it is looked at, there is a strong case for those involved to have not acted simply out of callousness, but partly, at least, as a result of the building tensions and issues happening in societies, neighbourhoods and communities, which largely work against them.

Read the Full Report from Mark K. Smith HERE.

The 2011 Riots – Part One.

Over 3000 people were arrested during and after the 2011 riots. Many of these were children, teenagers and young people under 25.

The youngest person prosecuted was a boy of 11, from North East London who smashed the window of a Debenham’s, causing £6000 worth of damage, and stole a bin worth £50.

The government say that the riots are one of the main reasons for the huge increases in prison population, particularly for young offenders.

David Cameron said at the time of the riots that those involved were ‘sick’ parts of society. The view of rioters became the great debate, with some people agreeing with Cameron, in that these people were criminals. Others, felt that the rioters were themselves victims.

There are many things to consider when trying to understand why so many children and young people took to the streets on August 6th 2011, to steal laptops, TVs and in other cases, food.

The approach to punishment was, as Cameron had promised, a harsh one. With some offences receiving double the punishment the same act would have received a year prior to the riots.

There are several important questions that the riots have raised:

Is the sentencing justifiable? Is it necessary to, at times, double the sentence? Is this punishing someone appropriately, fairly and in line with the offence committed, as the Justice System should?

Are children and young people entirely responsible? Is there anything else that could have added to the anger felt in these riots, or was it purely villainous crime by ‘evil’ and heartless  youth?

A lot of those involved in the riots were children and youth from unprivileged and largely poor backgrounds. The recession and lack of jobs have surely not helped in the build of tensions as more and more of those struggling fall below poverty lines and help.

Cutbacks to services during times of recession have also inevitably closed youth centres and clubs. There are many other problems involved, and I do not want to make a simplistic and vague link between the cut in youth clubs and the riots, as I do not believe this was the only factor in the tensions felt at this time. However, I do believe many youth workers from these areas were certainly not surprised by what happened on August 6th.

Here is a short video from The Guardian, shot around where I live – Wood Green. It was filmed 6 days before the riots. It focuses on the closure of 8 youth centres in the Haringey Borough, and asks some young people what they think, with one young boy predicting ‘there will be riots’.

CLICK THE IMAGE ABOVE TO WATCH VIDEO

Child Incarceration: The statistics.

To begin research in this area, here are some of the most recent statistics on child incarceration in England and Wales:

From Prison Population Statistics – House Of Commons Library – Feb 2012

At December 2011 there were:

–       1444 juveniles in prison – Juveniles are aged 15-17 years

–       Of these 1444, 250 were awaiting trial and 85 were awaiting sentence

–       268 12-15 year olds in privately run secure training centres (STC)

–       158 12-15 year olds in local authority secure children homes (SCH)

England and Wales has a Youth Justice System (YJS) which aims to monitor youth offending and reduce the number of young people under the age of 18 offending and re-offending.

Their report, published in January 2012 said:

–       The number of people in the YJS has reduced in the last few years.

–       Since 2007/8 there are 55% fewer young people coming into the system.

–       Since 2000 re-offending by young people has reduced 17%

–       10-17 year olds accounted for 17% (241,737) of all arrests in 2009/2010

–       There were 39,407 youth cautions given in 2010/2011

–       There were 176,511 proven offences by young people in 2010/2011 and 45,519 were first time entrants to the YJS

“While the overall rate of re-offending has remained broadly stable the number of young people in the re-offending cohort has gone down, with particular reductions among those with no previous offences and those receiving pre-court disposals. Because of this, those young people coming into the criminal justice system are, on balance, more challenging to work with. This is reflected in the higher predicted rate of re-offending and the higher average previous number of offences for each young person.”

                                                Youth Justice Statistics, 2012, Executive Summary

The YJS also monitor ‘risk factors’ in children. This would represent any added difficulties that may be associated with re-offending e.g. substance abuse, living arrangements. Those young people with more risks re-offended more often: 34% with 0-2 risks re-offended compared with 81% of those with 11-12 risks reoffended. This is why some of the children coming into the system may be more challenging to work with, despite an overall reduction in young offenders.

Prison Population Statistics report can be found in full HERE

Youth Justice Statistics report can be found in full HERE

Focus: Child Incarceration

While some of the issues have been scratched in the small time of this blog, I feel it is naive to continue without focusing on one specific area at a time.

With this in mind, I have decided to focus the coming posts on the issue of Child Incarceration.

England and Wales have the lowest age for criminal responsibility in Western Europe, at 10 years old. They also have the highest rates of child incarceration.

The subject of youth punishment and incarceration carries its own debates and issues, on suitable punishment, restraint and responsibility. As prisons get ever closer to capacity, rehabilitation for the young must form some priority.

My research will follow.

A Prisoner’s Point Of View

One English Prisoner has decided to document his feelings, ideas and experiences in a blog as he lives out his sentence.

His name is Ben, and his blog offers an inside view of the prison system, thoughts on reform and some other abstract thoughts, inevitable when on the inside. He even comments on the laws and changes in the ‘outside world’ with his most recent post commenting on the government proposals to record all electronic communications (e-mail, phone etc). In this post, Ben voices his discontent at people losing their freedom. (See below for full post)

Ben has been in the prison system since he admitted the murder of his friend at the age of 14, but has served much longer than the recommended 10 years. Michael Gove spoke out for Ben saying that he has been excessively punished for a crime he committed as a child. Ben has educated himself whilst in prison, through school and has gained a degree to post-graduate level.

Ben is an active individual, to the extent that he can be, whilst on the inside. He has become the Editor of the prison magazine, which as yet has not been printed, an issue plagued by censorship. He also has taken on charity work outside the prison.

A very interesting read, from a viewpoint that had in previous years not been possible to see and understand. In fact, it is the only blog by a British serving prisoner. Certainly one that makes a strong comment on the effectiveness of the prison system, and a rare chance to experience a prisoner’s thoughts.

You can read the blog here.

His latest post:

REPULSIVE

Wed 18th april

When the same Government who support a move away from “European” human rights towards “British” rights suddenly appear on my TV insisting that they should have the ability to trawl and record all electronic communications made by 65 million citizens, it must make some of us pause.
For a smaller – but far more significant – number of people such an monstrous outrage must prompt the question –  just what does a government have to do to its citizens before the people have a justifiable urge to wage war upon that government?
I cannot imagine this disgusting proposal for total State surveillance being made in any other Western democracy without the proposer either being fired or laughed away. In Britain, though, we give this proposal headspace and media coverage. Nobody takes to the streets.
Having got nowhere in the Orwell Prize this year I must quash my misery and point out what George told us so many years ago. “If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face -forever”.
We get the government we deserve. And given the British people’s incredible ability to become mere suspects for State surveillance whilst simultaneously believing in “British freedoms” then the government they deserve is just the one that abuses them in such a way.
This is one of those political moments which will shape the course of my future life and attitudes. I am deeply angry; not just at the government but at the apathetic voters who will allow this contemptible policy to become real. I’m not quite sure which party I find more deserving of challenge – the policy makers or the saps who sit back and allow them to weave their web.
Shame on us. Shame.