The 2011 Riots – Part Two

Who Was Involved?

From – Mark K. Smith’s analysis of the riots in Young People and The 2011 ‘Riots’ in England – Experiences, Explanations and Implications for Youth Work:

  • In an initial analysis of those who came to court in the first week, Alex Singleton (2011) found that 41% of suspects living in one of the top 10% of most deprived places in the country. The data also shows that 66% of neighbourhoods where the accused live got poorer between 2007 and 2010. Very few of those appearing in court had jobs or were students (around 9% in total of the first 1000 cases). The Institute of Public Policy Research (2011) found that in an overwhelming majority of the worst-affected areas, youth unemployment and child poverty were significantly higher than the national average while education attainment was significantly lower.

  • When the first thousand cases are examined we find 66% of those who have appeared in court are aged under 25. 17% aged between 11 and 17. A very small number were aged over 30. More than 90% are male.

  • Ethnicity and ‘race’ form a further feature that must be addressed. Unlike some of the disturbances in the early 1980s the August events did not, on the whole, pit one ethnic community against another, although there were some exceptions, for example in some aspects of events in Birmingham and Ealing, and implicitly, Eltham. However, many of the poorer neighbourhoods affected have large ‘black’ populations. Ministry of Justice and Home Office analysis showed that 46% of defendants were ‘black’, 42% ‘white’ and 7% ‘Asian’. At one level this could be expected given the nature of the initial incident and protest – and the extent to which ‘stop and search’ has been directed against ‘black’ young people.

This particular report by Smith is very revealing, and perhaps, through the benefit of hindsight, has more insight into the reasons and tensions surrounding the riots.

The report highlights several issues that have created tension, particularly over the last few months and years. They are:

– A large amount of those involved in the riots cam from the most deprived areas of the country. Many others were from areas and families that had slipped underneath the poverty line in the last couple of years, due to recession and cut-backs.

– The closure of youth clubs, particularly in deprived areas.

– Tensions between ethnic, mainly black, communities and the police – the commencement of the ‘Stop and Search’ law and the ‘extent to which this has been directed towards ‘black’ young people’. A report by the Equality and Human Rights Commission called ‘Stop and Think – A Critical review of the use of Stop and Search powers in England and Wales’ (2010) revealed:

The figures are stark: if you are black, you are at least six times as likely to be stopped and searched by the police in England and Wales as a white person. If you are Asian, you are around twice as likely to be stopped and searched as a white person.

– Gang Culture – particularly in London. Smith highlights a balance that needs to be struck in the involvement of ‘gangs’, explaining that while some members and groups were involved, to understand the riots as a whole, we also need to look past this. Most forces reported that gangs did not play a ‘pivotal role’ in the riots. Local evidence shows that in some cases gangs did orchestrate burglary at larger stores through creating distractions. London police believe there to be just under 200 gangs with between 20-30 members in London – who account for a fifth of all youth crime. During the riots, it seemed that some gangs who were initially and commonly ‘rivals’ in ‘postcode wars’ etc joined against the common foe – the police.

– Inequality and Materialism – The UK is only second to the US for having the largest gap between the rich and the poor, which common research has revealed is one of the factors in well-being i.e. in countries where this gap is bigger, more of the populations tends to be unhappy. The banking crisis of 2008 and its effects have largely preyed on children, forcing families into poverty, and struggles with finance. Add to this the pressures of consuming, and ‘technology status’ with phones and other gadgets, branded clothing distinguishing the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. Parents can feel immense pressure to give their children such items even if they are outside their financial possibilities. These sorts of pressures are highly felt in low income families, and according to research the purchase of these items by these families in the UK, are an attempt ‘to compensate for relationship problems or social insecurity’.

– Moral Collapse – this is a point that refers to the inability to tell right from wrong. The presence of so many stories of illegality in ‘high places’ have also been relevant. The abuse of expenses by MP’s, the collapse of the banks through inability to control finance appropriately – leading to the recession and its effects and also the invasion of privacy by companies such as the News of The World and its phone hacking scandals – leading to a lack of trust in these companies and their failure to act for the good of society.

Smith explains that the riots happened at a time when several elements were playing a part and there is not one single and simple cause.

Tensions in the neighbourhoods of the ‘rioters’ reveal tensions between the police and the people, who are often at the same time suffering from socio-econmical problems.

Some may have seen the riots as ‘payback’, some may have seen them as ‘fun’, some may have seen them as ‘an opportunity’ whether to steal high priced electronic goods or to steal food. However it is looked at, there is a strong case for those involved to have not acted simply out of callousness, but partly, at least, as a result of the building tensions and issues happening in societies, neighbourhoods and communities, which largely work against them.

Read the Full Report from Mark K. Smith HERE.


The 2011 Riots – Part One.

Over 3000 people were arrested during and after the 2011 riots. Many of these were children, teenagers and young people under 25.

The youngest person prosecuted was a boy of 11, from North East London who smashed the window of a Debenham’s, causing £6000 worth of damage, and stole a bin worth £50.

The government say that the riots are one of the main reasons for the huge increases in prison population, particularly for young offenders.

David Cameron said at the time of the riots that those involved were ‘sick’ parts of society. The view of rioters became the great debate, with some people agreeing with Cameron, in that these people were criminals. Others, felt that the rioters were themselves victims.

There are many things to consider when trying to understand why so many children and young people took to the streets on August 6th 2011, to steal laptops, TVs and in other cases, food.

The approach to punishment was, as Cameron had promised, a harsh one. With some offences receiving double the punishment the same act would have received a year prior to the riots.

There are several important questions that the riots have raised:

Is the sentencing justifiable? Is it necessary to, at times, double the sentence? Is this punishing someone appropriately, fairly and in line with the offence committed, as the Justice System should?

Are children and young people entirely responsible? Is there anything else that could have added to the anger felt in these riots, or was it purely villainous crime by ‘evil’ and heartless  youth?

A lot of those involved in the riots were children and youth from unprivileged and largely poor backgrounds. The recession and lack of jobs have surely not helped in the build of tensions as more and more of those struggling fall below poverty lines and help.

Cutbacks to services during times of recession have also inevitably closed youth centres and clubs. There are many other problems involved, and I do not want to make a simplistic and vague link between the cut in youth clubs and the riots, as I do not believe this was the only factor in the tensions felt at this time. However, I do believe many youth workers from these areas were certainly not surprised by what happened on August 6th.

Here is a short video from The Guardian, shot around where I live – Wood Green. It was filmed 6 days before the riots. It focuses on the closure of 8 youth centres in the Haringey Borough, and asks some young people what they think, with one young boy predicting ‘there will be riots’.


Child Incarceration: The statistics.

To begin research in this area, here are some of the most recent statistics on child incarceration in England and Wales:

From Prison Population Statistics – House Of Commons Library – Feb 2012

At December 2011 there were:

–       1444 juveniles in prison – Juveniles are aged 15-17 years

–       Of these 1444, 250 were awaiting trial and 85 were awaiting sentence

–       268 12-15 year olds in privately run secure training centres (STC)

–       158 12-15 year olds in local authority secure children homes (SCH)

England and Wales has a Youth Justice System (YJS) which aims to monitor youth offending and reduce the number of young people under the age of 18 offending and re-offending.

Their report, published in January 2012 said:

–       The number of people in the YJS has reduced in the last few years.

–       Since 2007/8 there are 55% fewer young people coming into the system.

–       Since 2000 re-offending by young people has reduced 17%

–       10-17 year olds accounted for 17% (241,737) of all arrests in 2009/2010

–       There were 39,407 youth cautions given in 2010/2011

–       There were 176,511 proven offences by young people in 2010/2011 and 45,519 were first time entrants to the YJS

“While the overall rate of re-offending has remained broadly stable the number of young people in the re-offending cohort has gone down, with particular reductions among those with no previous offences and those receiving pre-court disposals. Because of this, those young people coming into the criminal justice system are, on balance, more challenging to work with. This is reflected in the higher predicted rate of re-offending and the higher average previous number of offences for each young person.”

                                                Youth Justice Statistics, 2012, Executive Summary

The YJS also monitor ‘risk factors’ in children. This would represent any added difficulties that may be associated with re-offending e.g. substance abuse, living arrangements. Those young people with more risks re-offended more often: 34% with 0-2 risks re-offended compared with 81% of those with 11-12 risks reoffended. This is why some of the children coming into the system may be more challenging to work with, despite an overall reduction in young offenders.

Prison Population Statistics report can be found in full HERE

Youth Justice Statistics report can be found in full HERE